Weboldal címe
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Background: in order to express my thoughts more clearly, I have used images of my own creation, but I have also found it necessary to use images and descriptions by the greats, I have always published the details of the creator of the image and description.
Thanks to the creators!

                   An extremely distant quasar showing plenty of evidence of a supermassive black hole in the centre. X-RAY: NASA/CXC/UNIV OF                                MICHIGAN/RCREIS ET AL; OPTICAL: NASA/STSCI

The question is how the largest black holes in the universe can grow so huge in such a short time. The final answer is provided by Astrid, a computer model of galaxy formation.
Black holes are usually formed during the final stages of stellar evolution when massive stars collapse. Therefore, when a black hole is born, its mass does not exceed a few dozen solar masses. Once it has formed, however, a black hole starts to attract the matter around it, and if the hole in question is located at the center of a galaxy with a high density of matter, it can grow to millions or even billions of solar masses and become a 'supermassive' black hole.
It could be found in the Milky Way one of such black holes, the Sagittarius A, which is more than four million times heavier than the Sun. Although Sagittarius A is an incomprehensible giant, it actually dwarfs to some of the much larger 'ultramassive' black holes already known, which mass is tens of billions of times more than the mass of the Sun.

However, ultramassive black holes are not only simply huge, they also pose a challenge to researchers: the problem is that, according to current theories of galaxy formation and evolution, no black hole has had the time and material to reach this mass, even if it formed shortly after the Big Bang. In other to the words, there is one more contradiction between observations and current theories.

But researchers have a hypothesis to explain the existence of these giants - that ultramassive holes are not the result of the evolution of a galaxy, but rather of the collision of two or even three galaxies, with supermassive holes in the middle of them merging to form an ultramassive hole. This would not only create simply an incredibly large hole, but this hole, would attract matter around it more quickly, because of its increased mass, so it would grow huge in a shorter time. For a long time, however, this remained a hypothesis.  That's when Yueying Ni came into the picture for the American confirmation, Ni's statement found three ultramassive holes, all of which had gathered mass at this time, i.e. at cosmic noon.
Moreover, the simulation results largely agreed with the observations:
the mass of the largest known black holes is indeed around the equivalent of 40-65 billion solar masses. In fact, not only the masses of the supermassive black holes, but also the structure and luminosity of the host galaxies are in almost perfect agreement with the observations, making the study even more reliable.

Another interesting feature of the simulation is that the mass of the ultramassive black hole is very close to the theoretical maximum, after which the black hole has almost completed its absorption of material from the accretion disk around it.
According to this the computer simulations were quite accurate, and the theories describing the relationship between the black holes and the matter around them were brought to the team led by the astrophysicist woman who tested this idea on an astronomical model, Astrid.
As Ni said: "Astrid models a large part of the cosmos, spanning hundreds of millions of light years, yet it can zoom in (on smaller details) with very high resolution."

In the study, published in The Astrophysical Journal, the team focused on the age of the universe between 10 and 11 billion years. This period is known also as the cosmic noon, when the rate of star formation and the amount of matter absorbed by black holes reached this peak. In the simulation, the astrophysicists considered the evolution of 3,000 galaxies, resulting in the formation of more than 700 black holes with a mass more than 1 billion times that of the Sun’s.
Among these galaxies, several triple galaxy systems emerged that contained supermassive black holes - which eventually merged into an ultramassive galaxy. As expected, the black holes in the newly formed massive galaxies began to grow rapidly, reaching solar masses of approximately 50 billion, 65 billion and 100 billion in just a few hundred million years (i.e. at lightning speed on a cosmic scale) - after which their growth slowed down considerably.

According to Ni, three ultramassive holes have been found that all accumulated mass at this time, in the cosmic noon.
Moreover, the simulation results are very much in agreement with observations: the largest known black holes are indeed about 40 to 65 billion solar masses. In fact, not only the masses of the supermassive black holes, but also the structure and luminosity of the host galaxies are in almost perfect agreement with the observations, making the study even more reliable.

The mass of ultramassive black holes has been found to be very close to the theoretical maximum. This means that the computer simulations were reasonably accurate, moreover, theories describing the relationship between black holes and the matter surrounding them are also appropriate.

I think so

It's a pity they stopped the computer, maybe it could have shown what happens after the maximum, when the ultramassive black hole stops growing. So you can only think and guess what to expect after that.
For example:
It is very interesting to see how an ultramassive black hole continues to behave after losing its accretion disk. The accretion disk has been part of all black holes so far.
Also, the matter in the ultramassive black hole may still hold surprises. It is not possible, that the infinite amount of matter inside, would stay that way forever.
But I think it's expected that something will happen.

Now I'll try to describe what would happen with an ultramassive black hole after it becomes saturated:

  • It is possible that it explodes and its matter spread all over the Universe.
  • A new Universe could be born from it.
  • The absence of an accretion disk should cause gravitational and magnetic problems.
  • It is not conceivable that it would simply end with a slow termination by Hawking radiation.
  • Hawking radiation is faster in the small black holes, than the process is slower in the ultramassive black holes, or even has stopped already.
  • May be the ultramassive black hole collides with a similar black hole and the cataclysm reveals some new physics.

Neither is it impossible, since the ultramassive black hole has a solar mass of 40 to 60 billion, so its gravity is the same degree compared to the Sun's mass.
It is conceivable that this ultramassive black hole could reverse the current assumption of the Universe expanding with its enormous gravity, if the number of gravitational black holes increases.
I do not believe if it could be true, the Universe’s expanding at the speed of light.
I much prefer to accept the measurements having made so far, using redshift and exploding stars, supernovas, have not been adequate methods of measuring the expansion of the Universe.

This ultramassive black hole with its size and huge gravity is emitting ultra amount of vacuum energy (dark energy).
As there are more ultramassive black holes in the Tarantula Nebula, the amount of vacuum energy should increase, which would enhances the expansion of the Universe, but this would not be possible, as the Universe is still expanding at the speed of light according to the current researches and to Einstein’s statement that the speed of light cannot be exceeded.
The speed of light cannot be exceeded in the Universe, but the Cosmos may be expanding beyond the speed of light, that’s why Einstein's statement about speed of light rate is still valid!

But the ultramassive black hole is said to emit vacuum energy (dark energy) into the Universe, causing the Universe to expand at high speed. That sounds like a pretty good theory! 
But a black hole grown to an ultramassive size, could have a mass of 40-100 billion solar masses, and then the growth stops. I think the growth is not only in terms of its size, its mass, but its gravity must also increase accordingly.
Thus, an ultramassive black hole may not be suitable as a cause of the expansion of the Universe, since the giant gravity is what pulls the constituents of the Universe back together. So, this distancing due to Vacuum energy and the expansion of the Universe consequently can work only if we don't count on the increase of giant gravity!?
But if we take into account the gravity of the Ultramassive black hole, and the vacuum dark energy emission is reduced or eliminated, in this case the gravity of the Ultramassive black hole can slow down, even stop the expansion of the Universe! This process possible is because black holes are constantly being created in the Universe and will eventually grow into Ultramassive black holes.


A supermassive-ultramassive black hole vacuumed up an extremely huge gas cloud, causing the largest explosion in the Universe, with which it certainly exceeded the mass of the supermassive and ultramassive black hole.
This could lead to the creation of unknown new physics and new matter! I infer this because similar giant explosions are produced in giant accelerators on Earth, and new physics and new matter are created after the explosions.
But if supermassive and ultramassive black holes emit unimaginably high vacuum energy, it follows that giant black holes must lose mass.
If they lose mass, they cannot emit enough vacuum energy after a while, so the dark energy (vacuum energy) that constitutes the expansion of the Universe must decrease. The expansion rate of the Universe will then decrease.
Physics is capable of miracles, it is not even impossible that if a supermassive-ultramassive black hole loses sufficient, high levels of energy, then the supermassive-ultramassive black hole, which has already stopped working, will start up again.

I think that because these giant ultramassive black holes are just very far away, about ten billion light years away, than their creation is a special new physics. After all, there shouldn't be any matter there. 
Astronomers attribute the change in processes to the effects of supermassive black holes at the centre of galaxies, but it is difficult to find concrete evidence of this long ago.

The giant black hole hurtling through space

Although you can't see it, it has been speeding through the nebulae of stars in space, but you can see lots of star formation in its wake. By scanning old images from giant telescopes, they have detected, they have seen, that in the Universe, in long, stretched-out straight lines, like a a river of stars streaming, lots of stars are forming.
After examining the front of the star formation with the instruments of nowadays, they found that a giant black hole exists there, hurtling around the Milky Way.
It is flying by the galaxy at 100,000 miles per hour (161,000 km) in the Universe. Using gravitational microlensing, the black hole was discovered where scientists observed distortions of light caused by the gravity of an object.
How many interesting wonders are in the Universe! 

But how and what caused it to start, and especially at such a speed?

  • Perhaps it's possible that two spiral galaxies were colliding, with two giant black holes in the middle, which were merging, generating huge gravitational waves. As a result of the collision, their stars and nebulas formed a huge vortex (I've seen such vortices, huge gravitational energies are swirling).
  • A third galaxy approached to this, when a double giant gravitational wave and vortex from the merger of the two galaxies starting just merging together and the two black holes inside them,  tore the third galaxy apart and accelerated the black hole inside it so much that it was blown out into the Universe.

Now we can see that black hole with gravitational lens, orbiting the Milky Way. I should mention that, relatively close to this, researchers have found another black hole that is speeding along in the same way.
This implies that there could be more similar speeding black holes in the Universe. Its origin requires a new physical explanation. Perhaps the explanation is that the black hole orbiting the Milky Way will soon join the Milky Way.

The Tarantula Nebula and stars

                   The Tarantula Nebula (Flickr/NASA Goddard SFC)

Through the infrared eyes of the James Webb Space Telescope, you can see what the Universe might have looked like 10 billion years ago. The space telescope image shows thousands of stars in the vicinity of one of the most interesting nebulae, which have so far not been observed even with the most powerful telescopes.

The so-called cosmic noon marks the beginning of the formation of the Universe around 10 billion years ago, when the birth of stars of massive galaxies was happening faster than ever before. This intense period following the cosmic dawn did not last very long: as soon as the gases became too hot or the amount of dust needed to form stars in elliptical galaxies decreased, the rate of star formation slowed down or stopped.

Astronomers attribute the change in processes to the influence of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies, but it is difficult to find concrete evidence of this long ago.

The Dorado (Goldfish) nebula, officially known as 30 Doradus, is a highly active star-forming region, where the most celestial bodies of the members of the Local Group of Galaxies, including the Milky Way, are born.
It follows that the well-known Milky Way will have a long life, longer than previously predicted.

The Tarantula Nebula shows some similarities with the cosmic noon regions because of its chemical composition and offers researchers the opportunity to study how the dawn-to-dusk transition in the evolution of the universe took place.

The Tarantula nebula has been imaged by JWT's MIRI, NIRCam and NIRSpec instruments, and the images show stars in extraordinary detail, including some that previous images, such as those from ESO's VLT Sky Survey Telescope, have not yet been able to reveal.

According to ESA, the images will reveal thousands of newly discovered young stars in the cosmic web of Tarantula, the one researchers would observe for the first time, and will also help astronomers to learn more about the nebula’s structure and the composition of its gases. The nebula could be seen differently through the eyes of instruments measuring in the near-infrared and mid-infrared, and the European Space Agency and NASA are using the same region (top) and MIRI (bottom) instruments to facilitate comparison.


The stars of the Tarantula constellation are certainly far away at more than 10 billion light years so any conclusion about their properties, about them, is uncertain, and measuring them with light is not a certain result. 
So what we could see there is a very long past history, as 
on my website "" I have written. 
The interesting is that the central part of Tarantula with the huge mass of new stars might not be there, but a lot of new star formation can be found there with supernova explosions! 
The supernova explosions are spreading out a lot of metallic and other star formation elements in the Tarantula cluster. And from this, indeed, a lot of new young stars are created. But they could not be there, because supermassive black holes with good appetite can be found nearby, and they would have eaten the stars long ago. The aim of a supermassive black hole is to become an ultramassive black hole, and thus to eat and consume everything around it with its giant gravity, and then to become 60 to 100 billion solar masses by consuming its accretion disk, its ring. What we do not know yet, what will happen after the ultramassive black hole. But I think there is no way that this huge mass of matter and gravity could wait in peace for nothing. Something simply has to happen, see above.

Sagittarius A, in the middle of the Milky Way, is the most studied giant black hole because of its proximity, and I have read that there are many small black holes around it. However, dominating its own environment, there are no living stars around it. The many stars that pass around it travel in a giant oval orbit and to avoid Sagittarius A, accelerating at terrifying speeds to keep from falling into the black hole, to avoid being eaten by Sagittarius A. However, in the distant arms of the Milky Way, new stars are formed by the cause of Sagittarius A. 
So it's really interesting the center of the Tarantula Nebula and of the stellar cradle, where they coexist together with supermassive black holes.
At the same time, the wonder of the Universe arises in the constellation Tarantula. It can be denied, criticized, but it exists! We have to accept that the Universe may have many mysteries and secrets worth researching, even like the Tarantula constellation, which contains many stars and many stars being just born, while supermassive black holes can be found there, too. These were not possible to exist together as far as we know, but here they all live and do their work. And we will be forced to revise the laws we have and make new ones.

There is a galaxy 10 billion light years away, its weight like the Milky Way mass, but the size is 1/30 part, but it contains the same amount and quantity of matter, stars, stardust and small galaxies like in the Milky Way. Which would be impossible there, because there is not and never has been enough matter there. It could be that these galaxies are either not as massive or not as distant as seems to by measurements. But it is also possible that the light in these galaxies comes not from billions of stars, but from gas that is being swallowed by a supermassive black hole, a supernova – named a quasar. This latter discovery would be also interesting, since a few is known about the super heavy black holes in galaxies. Researchers  will check the results of nowadays with spectroscopy in the future: whether these galaxies are such distant as seem to be, and what might be producing the incoming light.

The long-lost 'galactic sibling' of the Milky Way has been found: the nearest large galactic neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy, shrunk and ate a massive galaxy, the M32p, two billion years ago.

M32 Photo by Fabrizio Francione                                                                             M31-M32(p) Photo by Ferenc Hollósi 22.09.2020.

Although it has shrunk greatly, the galaxy has left behind a legacy of evidence: an almost invisible halo, a stellar stream and a separate, mysterious, complex galaxy, M32. 
(A halo is the largest and rarest nearly spherical or elliptical region of galaxies, containing mostly old stars and globular clusters.) 
The discovery by University of Michigan researchers could help astronomers understand how disk galaxies like the Milky Way formed and survived massive mergers, MTI reported, according to the science news portal PhysOrg.

The third-largest member of the Local Group of Galaxies, after the Milky Way and Andromeda, was the M32p galaxy before it merged with Andromeda. Richard D'Souza and Eric Bell of the University of Michigan have analyzed the evidence with the help of computer models, and concluded that Andromeda is the long-lost 'sister' of the Milky Way. Their results are reported in the scientific journal Nature Astronomy. 
It has long been known to researchers that the halo surrounding galaxies contains the remnants of small, gobbled-up galaxies. Andromeda was expected to have "consumed" hundreds of its smaller companions. It was thought this might make it difficult to examine and study them one by one. 
However, with the help of a new computer simulation they have revealed that although many of Andromeda's galactic companions were consumed by Andromeda, its halo of the many outer, faint stars were formed by the fragmentation of a single large galaxy.

"Astronomers have long studied the Local Group of Galaxies. It was shocking to realize that the Milky Way had a big sister and we have never known about it," said Eric Bell.
The M32p galaxy that was destroyed by Andromeda was at least 20 times larger than any galaxy that had merged with the Milky Way in its lifetime. M32p had a huge mass, the third largest galaxy in the Local Group of Galaxies.

The result solves a long-standing mystery, namely how Andromeda's enigmatic companion galaxy M32 (also known as Messier 32 or NGC 221) was formed. It is thought that the complex and dense galaxy is the preserved central part of the Milky Way’s long-lost 'sister'- like the remaining core of a plum. 
"M32 is a strange phenomenon. While it looks like an old, elliptical galaxy, it has actually lost many young stars. It is one of the most complex galaxies in the Universe. There is no other galaxy like it," said Bell. 
Experts say the study changes the traditional theory of how galaxies form. It turns out that Andromeda's disk survived a collision with a massive galaxy, challenging the general theory that such a large interaction would destroy the disk and form an elliptical galaxy.
The methods used in this study can be applied to other galaxies. They will help to unravel the complex web of cause and effect that governs galaxy growth and gain knowledge about the effects of mergers on galaxies.

In a word, the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies, simply devoured the third galaxy M32p, which was not much smaller than they, the three of them were the largest in the Local Group. But the Milky Way and Andromeda did not do a proper job, they left a little bit of the devoured M32p. But the implication from this is that Andromeda will devour the Milky Way in 4 billion light years. Of course, nothing is certain looking ahead, only the past is certain, though that too is dialectical at times. It could happen many times in the Universe, the small star eats the big one. So it is not impossible that the Milky Way will eat up the Andromeda galaxy. In fact as I know, the Sun will become a red giant in 4 billion years. So I don't know from the Andromeda galaxy and the Milky Way galaxy which one will devour the other, what and when.

I am eager curious to see what the fate of Andromeda will be in 4 billion years, how they will collide with the Milky Way!

Budapest, 05.14.2023.
​Ferenc Hollosi