Weboldal címe
Weboldal alcíme

#Forever  #Love  #Photos


Background: in order to express my thoughts in a comprehensive way, I decided to use a few of my own pictures and photos, along with the essential images and descriptions of  the "great ones", always citing the authors of the said pictures and descriptions, to whom I would like to express my greatest gratitude!

The final shrinkage of the collapsing giant star is the Neutron star, or Magnetar. Its main ingredient is the neutron of the nucleus, and there is a thin surface material cover of it. The neutron star's main characteristic is that this is the world's strongest source of gravity, or Magnetar.

For me, it is interesting,
that the main ingredients of the nucleus are the proton and the neutron,
but the neutron star is formed by using only the neutron, and
a teaspoon of neutron star matter on the surface of the Earth would weigh 3 billion tons.
A neutron body dropped from a height of 1 m would be moving at a third of the speed of light on impact! Is it hard to understand what 1014 g/cm3 density means? Or "10 km is the diameter of the nucleus"?

Jocelyn Bell and Antony Hewish were the discoverers of the stars with this fantastic density in 1967, while making observations with the Cambridge (England) radio telescope network.

The hydrogen-helium fusion took place peacefully for millions of years. After a while, the hydrogen ran out, the star's core contracted, the temperature of its core increased, and the helium 'kicked in', starting its transformation into carbon and oxygen.
Of course, these also ran out later. Thus, in the ever-accelerating process of fusion of matter, the star arrived to the point when the core of almost pure silicon was transformed into iron, marking the moment of death for the star – when the fusion of iron cores no longer produces energy, but requires it. At this point, the gravitational pull overcomes the outward radiative pressure of the fusion reactions, the star collapses, but very quickly.
In less than a second, the star's roughly Earth-sized core contracts to about 10-15 km in diameter, compressing electrons and protons with enormous gravitational force, turning them into neutrons.
Further shrinkage is stopped by repulsive forces acting between the squeezed neutrons.
Then this triggers a deadly shock wave outwards, which tears apart the outer layers of the star - a Type II supernova flashes into existence. At the site of the explosion a slowly expanding cloud of gas is left, like the Crab Nebula.

A neutron star was formed from the giant stellar core. It has an atmosphere of a few centimeters, it has a solid and super-dense crust inside, and deep inside a super-fluid core resembling a giant atomic nucleus.

The pulsar

The newborn neutron star rotates rapidly, 50 times per second, due to the contraction and rotation of the former core. 
The rotation is so fast that, at speeds of up to 1000 km/s, it almost ejects the neutron star from the explosion site. This is due to the highly asymmetric supernova explosion.
Because its surface area is very small compared to its mass, that’s why it radiates its internal heat with very poor efficiency. The temperature of some neutron stars nearby could have been measured, which temperature is between 100,000 and 1 million K.
​A neutron star is nothing more than a gigantic spinning giant magnet, so it is no wonder that a huge electric field is generated on its surface. This then blows out charged particles - electrons, positrons, ions - along the magnetic lines of force. This creates the pulsar wind.


The material of Gravity:
What is Gravity? According to Newton, it is a force.

Einstein didn't think of gravity as a force so much as something mysterious that belongs to space.
Modern physicists agree with Newton and Einstein: gravity is something!
I believe that gravity is an invisible, ball-like mediating material (axion?), being in close contact with each other, filled the entire Universe evenly distributed, with spatial condensations.
This is confirmed by its ability transmitting gravitational waves at the speed of light to the gravity-sensing Ligo and Virgo instruments.
And justifies the existence of the gravity space that like an elastic rubber sheet, it bends in all cases, when weight, mass (it could be a star), or the matter with gravity of the entire Universe, is placed on it.
Of course I write this placement just to explain, as gravity can distort space-time and elastic? Or something else is happening.
So it's really amazing to imagine the path of gravity, it must be constantly undulating, but in space-time. But how can gravity waves travel at the speed of light to the detecting Ligo and Virgo instruments, being created for example when two black holes merge! Such gravitational wave events could be the collision of black holes or the collision of neutron stars in the Universe, which can occur at a rate of about 50 per month.

In any case, it is a known fact that all celestial bodies, regardless of their size,
the Earth, the Moon, the Sun and all the stars in the Universe,
the nebulae in it, the light, indeed all matter has its own gravity,
and matter exists in a constant gravitational interaction.

This gravity is created in the Universe by the 4% of known matter and the 23% of dark matter, of which composition is unknown, but they operate the Universe together.

Gravitational waves are created when two black holes merge at a single point, and similarly to light, spread out like a sphere through the Universe at the speed of light!
Our instruments can detect only the flat slice of these spherical gravitational waves.
I think it is necessary that the spherically propagating gravitational waves should be examined and detected also in space, and spherically, not just to test a small slice of the plane! The advantage of this would be that the exact location of two black holes explosion could be determined, and the components could be more accurately determined by spectral analysis. We would need to detect and study gravitational waves in space in the Universe, with properly designed satellites. This would be a major step forward for astrophysical science!

The great question of science is the gravity is infinitely effective, but we don't know the transmitting material (could it be an axion?), its size is probably 10-40, which means it will never be visually viewable. But it must have matter, because it transmits gravitational waves, so as energy to infinite distance far away, what we can measure.

But it is also possible that gravity doesn’t have any mediating substance, since every substance that fills the Universe has its own gravity, and dark matter amplifies it. Gravity exists by interactions its overall extending impact fills the space of the Universe, too.

In my opinion many scientists miss-state that the Universe and all its matter spread in space after many billions of light-years, and thus ceases to exist. According to scientists Universe ceases to exist because after its creation it took the form of an ever expanding funnel, which after 8 billion light years expanded to such an extent, its diameter increased that gravity was overcome by dark energy being inside, which is now spreading the Universe apart at near light speed, which will disappear into space. This evidence confirmed Edwin Hubble by redshift measurements.

I have been writing for many years that Universe won’t cease to exist,  it will continue to exist in another form.
​The centrifugal force of the Universe spinning on its own axis forces stars, galaxies, nebulae and all its constituent elements to the edge of its plane. These, by forming a flat ring shape, using their mutual gravitational pull in the state of the equilibrium of their matter stop the expanding of the Universe and eliminate the repulsive effect of dark energy and centrifugal force. Thus the Universe would exist in this form, in equilibrium until the end of time.

Hoag's Object is an unusual ring galaxy in the constellation Serpens Caput

The rotation of the Universe was described by Dr Vera Rubin in her doctoral thesis as the stars rotate, the Earth rotates,  the galaxies rotate, so the Universe rotates! She also discovered dark matter and dark energy. She suggested that scientists should devote most of their time and energy to these two unknowns and knowing their matter.
She wrote these 20 years ago. Unfortunately, even today we do not know the components of dark matter and dark energy.  

There are different types of gravity, depending on the matter or function of the object, and it is not even sure that the larger celestial object has a higher gravity. It is also possible that the star at the end of its life will shrink into a neutron star or black hole, thus their overwriting gravitational force will condense, causing a dramatically changing the space-time around them in the Universe.
At the end of its life the giant star expands into a huge red star, and its core continues to shrink, that’s why after a while it drops its exterior red cover off and it spread out in the Universe. The giant star's original size is equivalent to 10-80 Sun’s size, and it has the gravity to match. Its core, after dropping its red outer shell, shrinks to a size of 50-100 kilometers, and its gravity according to the giant star’s size is concentrated in the core, in a black hole with an accretion disk around it.
The enormous gravity thus created is such that it holds back the glowing light of the black hole and creates a singularity at its center, containing an infinitely amount of matter of infinitely small size. This black hole eats up all matter in an infinitely greedy manner by means of its accretion disk, and thus continuously increase in size and gravity in accordance with it.
After reaching a huge size, it is not uncommon for two giant black holes coalescing both in matter and in gravity. This is how it is created a supermassive or ultra-massive black hole, whose gravity is almost infinite, and at this point it stops feeding.
According to recent researches dark energy is created and emitted by the ultra-massive black holes. The fate of the ultra-massive black holes is unknown.

Today, there are already detectors on Earth measuring gravitational waves generated by black hole collision. But the gravitational wave must propagate in gravitational space, and in addition to its perception, we also perceive that all matter in the Universe, from the atom to the largest celestial object, is gravitationally perceived, attracted to each other in space, and therefore interacts.
Could be the gravitational force shielded? This weak force, condensed from the collapsing star, becomes so strong that the resulting black hole attracting its own considerable light by its own gravity, which is why it is seen as dark. It’s interesting the gravity of the original giant star is condensed in a black hole without any residual that can even tear stars apart.
The mass of the black hole is dominant, it can devour and shrink all matter in its accretion disk, and thus its gravity increases. A larger star has more mass and matter too, and therefore its gravity larger must be!

If gravity does not lose its strength even when the star collapses under extreme conditions, and shrinks too, then it matter must be!

Black hole may be born when a giant star is collapsed. Some of the matter of the star is condensed in the black hole and the huge gravity is concentrated too, so with huge gravity comes to be a singularity from the infinitely dense matter.
At an infinitely small point in the singularity, there is an infinite amount of matter, according to modern physics. But precisely because of its enormous density, it is not possible for it to contain a universe, or possibly more. It is possible that there is an infinite amount of matter in the singularity of the black hole. But we don't know what kind of matter they are, and especially what state the different kinds of matter are in in the singularity in infinitely small space. I can't imagine that non-compressible atoms could be compressed by enormous gravity to infinitely small sizes in the singularity, e.g. atoms of all matter in a Universe. But astrophysics says that it is possible to condense infinitely large amounts of matter in an infinitely small space in the singularity. If this is true, then all the matter in the Universe could fit into the singularity.
How is it possible to condense the atoms of more than 100 kinds of matter, according to Mendeleev's table, to infinitely small sizes, compressing them with enormous gravity, in infinitely size? In the nucleus there are protons, neutrons, mesons, and it has a weak electric field, and it has an atomic force field. In addition, there are electrons around the nucleus.

The space between these substances, forces, fields would have to be reduced to almost zero, and although then they would have been in a very mixed, disordered state, even then we would not reach the infinitely small size of matter in the singularity!

According to physicists, no one has ever seen that the singularity exists in the black hole, whose physics would work as described above. At the moment we can rely only on computer models.
But I think it exist that when a star deaths, shrinkage of material occurs, a black hole is created, with a singularity in it. In such a way that the matter inside shrinks to an infinitesimally small size. This possible is that they are transferred to a much smaller dimension by the enormous gravity, in which the matter of a star or many more objects must fit in a point-like space.
As I described in my essay "Affirmation, explanation and demonstration of the infinity of the Universe”.

Gravity is part of matter. Or actually all matter, known matter, dark matter (dark energy has antigravity), as we know it, has gravity. In order to fit in the singularity an infinite amount of matter, materials must be all converted to the formation status, or even smaller. This transformation requires an enormous gravitational power, and so can be realized to fit the matter of a Universe into the black hole and the singularity within it!!!

But it arises that the reverse of it is not impossible, materials, the known matter, the dark matter and the dark energy are formed from gravity.
These are all manifestations of gravity. I claim that all matter in the Universe is created by gravity, from gravity!

Space is infinite, but as I have written, it is not devoid of matter. There are many kinds of matter in it, some of which we do know and much of it we do not know.
So the way that the matter of the Universe was created from gravity, by gravity, realistic I think!

The age of the Universe is calculated by measuring the redshift of light from extremely distant galaxies and stars. A few years ago, according to the so-called Lambda-CDM Einstein model was measured to be 13.797 billion light years. This is now the generally accepted age. The Lambda-CDM constant being created by Einstein, which proves dark energy being responsible for the accelerating expansion of the Universe, should be revised!

Source: Wikimedia commons
If the researchers are right, Universe could be shaped like a doughnut in a higher dimension

Dark energy

The infinite power of dark energy is pushing the Universe towards annihilation!
I have written a lot about the interaction of known matter and dark matter so far, about the existence and function of gravity in the Universe.
In space, all matter, known matter, dark matter, dark energy and gravity was created, at the same moment the Universe was created.

Myself, many scientists, physicists and astrophysicists write and study a lot about the mysteries of the wonderful Universe, we know a lot, or we are wrong, we think we have understand everything, but we have taken only one step to understand something, after which more mysteries are revealed, waiting to be solved. In fact, that is why the astrophysics of the infinite starry sky is beautiful and interesting, exciting, because it is mysterious, like a beautiful Woman, it loves and creates. We are mainly concerned with the visible matter and the dark matter of the Universe, and the gravitational properties, physics and interaction of these.
However, it arises that dark energy receives less attention. Dark energy was created at the same time of the creation, like all matter, as described above.
But for 8 billion light years it was at peace with the other matter and gravity. Then a change occurred, until then the cohesive force of gravity had dominated, as they were in a slightly outwardly tapering tube form, and the gravitational interaction dominated in the relatively narrow space of objects, stars, nebulae, galaxies, clusters and the black holes having a particularly strong gravity. As time progressed, the diameter of the rotating Universe in the slightly outwardly tapering tube on its own axis increased, and as a result a centrifugal force came up, moving objects further apart, reducing their gravitational interaction. And so, in the increased space, dark energy was freed from its bondage, some 8 billion years after its creation. The tubular shape of the Universe has slowly spread out, forming now a plane similarly to a turntable in the Universe. And the dark energy is on a rampage, right now deals with to spread out the rotating Universe in space, even to eliminate it. Otherwise, an integral part of the Universe, being a net inside, the braids of which are made up of dark matter, and in the knots of the web are galaxies, in the threads are nebulae and stars. And dark energy fills the empty eyes of the web.
​It's all planned, organized please, wow!?

With Big Bang, the origin couldn't have happened this way, because there was no material to explode yet, it was just later. According to the astrophysicist, Alan Harvey Guth.

The creation could have happened because the gravitational pull was reversed. And the gravitational pull turned into a repulsive pull. This allows space to inflate 1 molecule of space onto the matter of a Universe in 1millionth of a second, using the gravity in space. 
The cosmic background radiation is confirmed by images, and the satellites confirm the creation. Afterwards there was inflation, huge expansion, theoretical secret that the expansion was not uniform everywhere, but decayed into parts which created the Multiverses, although small in size dark energy can become matter.
Proof: the energy repulsive power of the Dark.

The force of dark energy is small, only 0,00000000000000001 part of a Hydrogen atom.
Extremely small energy, yet it ensures that the Multiverses that exist in infinite Space can be created, in infinite (billion x billion) x100 quantities, each different or only slightly different. 1 of these is our Multiverse and within it our Universe, in it the Milky Way, the Solar System, and our life, the Earth.
For all these to occur Multiverses, their Universes, and in them known matter and life be created. 
If the above Dark Energy’s strength is not that degree, or if it is only 1-5db less than zero, or more, then nothing will be created.
The dark energy strength is small, the Hydrogen atom= 0,00000000000000001 so many parts,16 zeros and then a 1.
Yet it is the basis of everything.

All known matter is made up of strings, they vibrate in a way specific to matter, each different.
String theory says 10500 on pc, that's how many kinds of Multiverse there could be. And of all these, it is impossible to choose which one matches our Universe. That is why physics, astrophysics, does not accept String Theory, because the loops are infinitely small, they cannot be seen. Since it will not be visible, science does not acknowledge its existence either, even though it can power all the physical formulas of the Universe.                                                                                                             


The size of aerospace background energy’s matter is extremely small, the same size as strings.
Based on what I have described so far, I see that there was a collaboration between the background the energy of aerospace, gravity and string theory in the creation. In such a way that matter was created from the background energy of space by gravity, in cooperation, and the vibration of the strings determined what the matter should be!


Could our universe and its matter be in the middle of a giant ultra-massive black hole singularity! 
So we are there too, our universe too, which seems to be nonsense, but not impossible!  Moreover, could this be reality?
The singularity has the property, according to our present knowledge, of being able to store infinitely large amounts of matter in infinitely small, point sizes?!
I know, this sentence contradicts what is stated in the title, i.e. that our UNIVERSE can exist in a singularity. However, it is certain by no means that the physics of the singularity works in a black hole exactly as known, rather could be classified as unknown its properties, operation and physics.
Here follows my study showing that it is not impossible that the Universe contains microscopic materials currently also, from which Universes have been created. Their size is suitable to form a universe in the singularity.
The detailed demonstration of this possibility is detailed in my study below:
“Affirmation, explanation and demonstration of the infinity of the Universe”, which is available here:


Objects millions of light years apart in the Universe move in synchrony in unexplained ways. There couldn’t exist any interaction between objects being so far apart, but yet a group of the galaxies rotating in the same direction and moving towards the Earth. While the other group is rotating in the other direction, moving away from the Earth.
In the same way it can be said that some of the black holes, being up to 1 billion light years away from the Earth, are similarly rotating and moving closer to Earth, while other part are rotating in the other direction and moving away from Earth.
Interactions on this scale and at this distance in the known Universe cannot be explained by physics today. Though these are significant happenings, and these may have a serious, as yet unknown, reason for them.
A problem arises, that motions of the particular space objects are measured relatively to the Earth. I don't find it plausible that the Earth would be the center of the Universe, nor is there any verified sign that the Earth could trigger with any special physical characteristic the special galaxy and black hole motions being measured against it. I'm a bit doubtful!
That is a fact that 100 billion galaxies and 100 billion black holes exist in the Universe, yes this is a very large number! The rotation of objects in one direction or the other, and their approach to and moving away from the Earth, for the case of such huge numbers, can be random cluster rotation and moving away due to the quantity.

The first extraordinary dark stars

In a new survey by the James Webb Space Telescope, it has found the first extraordinary dark stars in close proximity to each other, twelve to thirteen billion light years from Earth. They were created 300-400 million years after the Universe began. This time can be considered minutes in the Universe. The first special dark stars are the earliest objects in the Universe.
There is a big vacuum in space. Its temperature is -273C˚, but that doesn't mean no matter being in it. At 12-13 billion light years, 5-10 atoms or grains of matter exist by m3, as well as quantum and virtual matter. Matter was created from particles of matter in such a way, that dark matter, dark energy and quantum matter had the opportunity to be compressed by the slowing down of speed of light and gravity of matter.
The first dark stars,
unlike the other theory, were created by, that the matter of space had clustered into clouds, and when this cloud of matter had reached the right amount needed, collapsed and the first dark stars were created from it.
These stars had contained known matter and dark matter both. Later dark matter had devoured the known matter, which is why there is only 4% of it today.
This particular star formation could have realized only the way that by the result of collapse the first dark star hadn’t been created, that is it had been created though, but it did not has  gravity enough to pull in all the matter around it. It was realized by being created an air balloon, with a dark star formation in it. Their operation implements a completely new physics, because the first dark star strongly attracts the material of the balloon, but it cannot fall into it, because there are continuous explosions of dark matter between the balloon material and the star, which prevent the first dark star formation from being fully completed.
But it has gravity already! The core of the first dark star has not reached the right temperature for nuclear fusion. Naturally, therefore it tends to attract also the air balloon surrounding it. Since it has not yet succeeded, the balloon is constantly pulsating, i.e. expanding and contracting measurably.
Scientists have also studied the first dark star formation also in the past.
According to known physics, it would have to be formed into a dark star, and according to current physics, there could not be a separate air balloon around it, definitely need to attract it to itself anyway, in contrast.

A formation of a dark star of this composition is that possible with 300-400 years after the Big Bang because this new dark star and its balloon around it are composed of much less material and also has a smaller core.
And is it possible, that its matter could be not hydrogen, but axion?!
Researchers think about three objects that could be the first dark stars:
JADES-GS-z13-0, JADES-GS-z12-0, and JADES-GS-z11-0.
​According to data analysis the space telescope detected them from the times with 300-400 million years after the formation of the Universe. They are virtually the earliest objects ever detected.

Budapest, 12.25.2023.

​Ferenc Hollosi