Introduction: In order to express my thoughts in a comprehensible way, I used some of my own images, but I believed it necessary to use along with the essential images and descriptions of the “great ones”, always citing the authors of the said pictures and descriptions, that’s why I have to thank the authors for their work!
1. The observable Universe 2. Black holes 3. The question of dark matter 4. The question of dark energy 5. The materializing of the plane Universe 6. The plane Universe is rotating 7. The centrifugal power of the rotating Universe 8. Black hole
In order to know the topic of DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY, we have to start from the formation of the Universe. According to the facts of geometry and mathematics, the current shape and form of the Universe resembles a flat surface (referred to as “1”), indicating that the Universe has reached a turning point, as it is presumed that it would evolve into a fully flat surface after 13,7 billion light years. The gravitation and the expansion caused by the power of the Universe forming materials, have remained almost balanced over several billion light years. At present time a completely new physics is implemented; upon examining the difficult subjects of dark (unknown) matter and dark (unknown) energy, we have to rely on these assumptions. I am confident that the current level of scientific knowledge of researchers, physicists, astrophysicists and nuclear physicists will be able to solve for us to discover the physics of dark matter and dark energy. In this study, I would like to elaborate on these facts, discovered through the use of new perspectives, as well as my newly created ideas.
Image No. 1 wiki/Dark_energy#/media/File: Lambda-Cold_Dark_Matter,_Accelerated_Expansion_of_the_Universe,_Big_Bang-Inflation.jpg
1. The observable Universe
According to the current state of scientific knowledge (though this is disputed by many people), the observable Universe is originated from the “Big Bang”, basically from “the emptiness”!? At the beginning of times, with the “Big Bang”, an explosion has caused the release of center outward-bound energy in unimaginable amounts, which had, and still has expanded and evolved exponentially, currently in plane direction, as shown in the above chart. Some theories suggest that the “Big Bang” caused the formation of two Universes, a matter and an antimatter universe.
Image No. 2 - Survey Results: All-Sky Map of the Planck Spacecraft, in the frequency range of microwave regions between 30-857 GHz. (Source: ESA)
According to other assumptions, there is an infinite number of Universes - I like this idea! In my opinion, this explains the existence and functioning of dark matter and dark energy. https://astronomyknowhow.hu/en/universe---explanation-of-the-infinite
Several billion light years ago, the colossal explosion during the “Big Bang” has produced an immense amount of energy, which led to the creation of atomic particles, primarily hydrogen atoms, and subsequently the atoms, molecules, stars, constellations, galaxies and enormous dusts of the Universe, continuously forming new and new stars from this. But stars and supernovae are constantly created even today; when a star collapses, its matter is recycled during the formation of a new star, and its energy is dispersed across the Universe as an astrophysical jet. I have found no evidence proving the spontaneous formation of stars from the energy existing in the Universe!
In the empty space of the Universe, matter and antimatter are constantly produced, but following their immediate collision, an explosion (mutual annihilation) results an energy back performance. Stars and galaxies possess gravitational attraction, creating with this the galactic physics (Newton, Einstein). At the same time, has the creation of gravitational attraction, arising from the Big Bang, caused the neutralizing of anti-gravitational repulsive forces? Last, but not least, we may not only enjoy the light of stars and dusts, but examine these phenomena upon conducting our research to further human knowledge. In the Universe, only chaos and changes are infinite; and yet, there are certain laws and rules which function reliably.
2. Black holes
Black holes, which material is so strong that no particles can escape from them, have also been formed; their incredible gravitation, which is too strong for even visible light to escape and causes them to act as black bodies, keeps expanding constantly. The very center of almost any and all kind of spiral galaxies can be found a supermassive black hole; the larger the spiral galaxy, the larger the black hole hosted therein. Stars collapse into these black holes in the center of spiral galaxies; at the same time, they contribute to the process of star formation in the edge of the galaxy. The gravitation of the black hole ensures the rotation of the spiral galaxy, as well as prevents the collapse thereof into the Universe by neutralizing the centrifugal forces. Bless the Creator, for he made this to be! Matter of no size and material consuming everything the black hole, and expanding constantly; naturally, there have been occasions of black hole mergers, creating a new supermassive black hole. Black holes are surrounded by high-speed accretion disks rotating high speed, where materials and stars’ temperature rises to astonishing values, while going through atomic transformation, and sinking into the black hole at the end. There are stars which emit enormous astrophysical jets from the accretion disk prior to their collapse, which means that these jets are not produced by black holes. To add to the confusion, there have been instances when instead of collapsing into the black hole, a star is thrown into the Universe at a colossal speed - a so-called “cosmic slingshot” event. That’s how stars of incredible speed are created. We have no knowledge about the inside of black holes, except that it is so heavy that if we dropped a one cubic centimeter (cm3) piece thereof on the Earth, it would penetrate the surface underneath. Such weight of the black hole is, to the best of my knowledge, caused by this matter consisting only of atomic nucleus. Hawking radiation?! A truly interesting theory, though unverified, according to which matter of negative charge also falls into black holes, reducing thus its weight; subsequently, a reduction in weight causes an increase in temperature, which results in the creation of the so-called Hawking radiation on the surface, ultimately leading to the collapse of black holes in the distant future, with an explosion equivalent to the force of million H-bombs.
Black holes are not really “holes”; roughly shaped spherical, this ideal form would otherwise be unable to sustain itself and contain its enourmous gravitation.
Historical image of the black hole hosted in the center of Galaxy Messier 87; April 10, 2019 Courtesy: EHT
3. The question of dark matter
According to Stephen Hawking, black matter is consisted of a multitude smaller-sized black holes occurring in the Universe. However, high-resolution images failed to prove this assumption. Only a single black hole was found in the Andromeda Galaxy. Nevertheless, as I have stated hereinabove, new laws of astrophysics are being created, due to the fact that the Universe is progressively evolving into a flat surface. Therefore, we have to assess the mere existence of dark matter and dark energy from a brand new perspective. Recent developments have mostly addressed the issue of dark matter. Dark matter primarily appears in galaxies; its gravitational properties have been observed as largely concentrated in dwarf galaxies. Dark matter can be easily observed; appearing mostly in dwarf galaxies, it resembles like a dark fluid, which is, however, able to interact with ordinary matter as well. According to present information dark matter is presumably formed by neutralino, the physical properties of which have been correctly predicted by research physicists. The main part of neutralino is a too cold matter in order to interact with the visible matter, it must be heated up. Image No. 3
Image No. 3: A computer model (left) and the “real” images (right) of the IC 1613 dwarf galaxy.lllustration: University of Oxford
4. The question of dark energy
The topic of dark energy poses a much more complex issue, as many scholars doubt even the possibility of its potential existence. However, researchers have shown the lack of 74% of the overall weight of galaxies, being proved by the phenomenon of diffraction and the gravity (Image No. 4); they named it: “dark energy”, claiming that something must be there, which is invisible?! The loss of gravitation that remains after the spiral galaxies, stars, dust and dark, unknown matter must be replaced by something new, something different way. Even more so, that a large number of scholars argue that the expansion of the observable Universe by the speed of light is due to the effect of the unknown, dark energy? Upon several attempts to repeat Hubble’s experiments, recent measurements have concluded that the Universe is expanding at the rate of 700 supernovae jets, and not by the speed of light! https://astronomyknowhow.hu/en/the-light-s-misterious-road-through-the-universe
5. The materializing of the plane Universe
Following the Big Bang, components of the Universe have expanded at an enormous speed; subsequently, following the formation of atoms, stars, spiral galaxies, black holes and dust rotating in a slowly expanding tube, matters and their gravitation were rotating forward in a conical tube with declining balance. Happened it up until the convergent gravitational force of matters being eventually exceeded by centrifugal forces arising from the rotation (as more and more matter has accumulated towards the end of the tube), which led to the creation of a spherical-conical shaped Universe.
6. The plane Universe is rotating
It is my opinion that the Universe is evolving into a flat surface, and it is debatable whether any dark energy of unknown physical properties is essential to its rapid expansion. It appears possible that the Universe, currently evolving into a flat surface as indicated under Image No. 1 hereinabove, revolves around its own axis, just like countless spiral galaxies in the Universe. It means that flat forming and rotational centrifugal forces actually replace the so-called dark energy, causing thus the expansion of the Universe. Unfortunately, we are currently unable to measure the rotation of the Universe, as there is no solid point for measurements beyond the observable Universe. However, just like in relation to spiral galaxies, we should devote more attention to measurements of peripheral speed caused by forces of rotation. (Image(s) No. 1-2)
Image No. 4: Wikipedia – Dark Energy-/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/DarkMatterPie.jpg
Nowadays physics and astrophysics scholars are mostly focusing on the two issues identified in the title of this study. Ordinary matter accounts for 0,4% stars and other elements, of all matter in the UNIVERSE, while 3,6% thereof consists of as well as intergalactic gas (outer space). Based upon this, dark matter can be divided into 3 groups: so-called ordinary matter (4%) and dark matter (22%), with the larger remainder part represented by dark energy (74%). Pursuant to WMAP measurements on cosmological parameters, we may observe the following values:
Total Density of the Universe (ρ/ρc): 1.02 ± 0.02 where 1 = flat Universe.
7. The centrifugal power of the rotating Universe
The evolving of the Universe, revolving around its own axis, towards a flat surface offers excellent proof of various astronomical velocities along the flat conical shape occurring due to centrifugal forces; that is, the further they are located from the center, the larger the effect of centrifugal forces on matter, causing a progressive increase in their recessional velocity. Such argumentation, stating that the recessional velocity of stars increases exponentially by their distance from the center, also proves that the Universe rotates perpendicular to a flat plane.
Having reviewed the facts and assumptions listed hereinabove, I am convinced they form a logical sequence of mutually supporting claims.
8. Black hole
The issue of black holes inspires us to develop new ideas. I find it highly unlikely that matter of infinite volumes would collapse into a black hole, causing thus that black holes themselves would expand to infinite sizes! I maintain such opinion even in relation to the merger of black holes - they cannot just create an infinitely large black hole! Such impossibility is further supported by the fact that the collapse of infinite matter into black holes would suggest that the Universe itself would collapse into a black hole, and cease to exist. That would mean that I have just discovered one of the possible ways the Universe could end?! And if the Universe could really just collapse into an infinitely large black hole?! Would it also suggest that the Universe could have been come out of a black hole upon the Big Bang?! To sum up, there must be a critical value, a threshold, a limit to the expansion of black holes! I have always found theories on the formation of the Universe, claiming that everything, all matter, anti-matter, dark matter, dark energy and black holes were created from a single atom, hard to believe; these ideas are, as of today, obsolete. It is my opinion that my idea regarding the formation of the Universe described hereinabove offer a much more agreeable and acceptable explanation, pursuant to which the explosion of a large overloaded black hole caused the “Big Bang”, leading thus to the formation of the Universe, scattered across the cosmos, creating its own laws of physics, as well as the light. I think, this is a clear proof of the Inventor’s, Creator’s existence!
Inventor Ferenc Hollósi – Hungary, Budapest, 27/09/2019