OUR EYES's BEAM on NEWTON - ATOM - QUANTUM PHYSICS
Introduction: In order to express my thoughts in a comprehensible way, I decided to use a few of my own images, along with the essential images and descriptions of the “great ones”, always citing the authors of the said pictures and descriptions, whom I would hereby like to offer my most sincere gratitude!
Over the past many years, I have found that if someone is looking at me from behind, after a while I notice and turn towards them.
If I am looking at someone from a distance, after a while he turns towards me, sensing that I am looking. I have noticed the same thing with birds, for example, if I look at a bird it flies away, if I don't look at it, even if I am nearby, it stays in its place. I have experienced this not only with humans, but also with many kinds of animals.
From this I concluded that our eye ray transmits quantum energy, as evidenced by the double-slit experiments in wave-matter control, and the human-animal perception of the eye ray. But it also proves that we perceive the quantum eye-beam not only in the micro-world of atoms, but also in the macro- and micro-world of humans and animals.
The key point of the above mentioned experiment is that we can use the eye-beam to influence the appearance of the wave or matter in the extremely important double-slit experiment, the most significant proof of quantum physics, so where I write the double-slit experiment, the experiment-affecting fact of the eye-beam applies, i.e. the wave is turned into matter by the eye-beam.
Nonsense! This is a wonderful phenomenon!
How can we accept that we can change the quantum atomic world by our eye beam, wave or matter?!
The experiment was repeated many times with the same results. When light passes through the two slits, it forms wave interference, and when we look at it, it indicates matter.
Schrödinger's book on page 26 cca. I read it 15 years ago and I was very enthusiastic about the quantum world he describes, but I have not been able to explain the two slit experiment, although there must be an explanation. In excuse, but the two slit experiment is still a miracle, even in the scientific world.
I wonder how it is that the two slit experiment works equally in the micro and material world, in macro, too. One of the main issues in physics is that the Einsteinian formula E= M x C², which defines the physics of the macro world, does not apply in the micro, atomic and quantum world.
And it doesn't work the other way round either, the formulas and physics of the micro, atomic and quantum worlds don't work in the macro material world. What can be found in our eyesight that is perceived by the whole world, in fact, if I look at the starry sky and seeing a star, its light comes as a wave, but I can see a star point, as a matter.
If we look at a lovely beautiful woman, she perceives it and looks back into our eyes and the miracle begins. The Italians say they are struck by lightning. Yes, it can happen, as looking at each other, a new life is beginning for them, which can last even for the rest of their lives, in joy, in happiness and in troubles, too. What happened?
Two people looked into each other's eyes and they were almost enchanted (the author had such an experience) and this is actually not only quantum physics but physiology, and even it transforms the physical existence of the two people, even perhaps the DNA, and this is the real miracle!
I know that my fellow scientists will downgrade me for these lines, but this is still the reality, the true story.
The truth is that our eye’s rays are capable of miracles not only in the double slit experiments, but in real life, too. We can aim it at a star. Or by placing an object made straight in front of our eye rays we can see the deviation from the straight line. We can measure dark, light, distance, length, height, light and colours with our eyes....
I won't go into the brain function of our eyes, that's a science of its own.
Analyzing the above, it is clearly confirmed that our eye ray transmits communications and information, so it can be a vibration or a wave, but it is not impossible that it has a material phenomenon. In addition to those described I do not know yet how to measure and verify the physical and chemical components of the eye ray and its mechanism of action. As evidence, I would mention that it is the experience of African hunters that one should not look into the eyes of the beast, because it senses it and attacks defensively.
The famous physicist John Gribbin's book “Schrödinger's Cat - quantum physics and reality” is still a seminal work. It introduced many people to quantum physics, including myself, too. In the book, he explains the basics of quantum physics in a very graphic and clear way. Don't be frightened, the Hungarian language of the book is very understandable, with a little diligence almost everything can be understood regardless of age, it is wonderful, mysterious, readable, but it is about our future. The double-slit experiments and the resulting quantum physics explanations guide us through understanding the main and fundamental parts of the wonderful world of quantum physics.
The most attractive for me, in fact, was the really great double-slit experiment. Which consists of taking 3 disks, the first disk with a hole of the right size in the middle, the second disk with two slits of the right size and distance apart, the third disk flat.
The experiment is carried out with 3 plates behind each other at a suitable distance by sending a beam of light, a photon, an atom passing through the center hole of the first plate, and the light, passing through the second plate’s two slits form interference (horizontal dark and light stripes being at equal distances from each other), i.e. interference appears on the screen (third plate).
This type of experiment was first performed, using light, by Thomas Young in 1801, as a demonstration of the wave behavior of light, consisting of either waves or particles. The phenomenon works the same way if only 1 photon, or one atom, is sent into the detector. This interference proves that the transmitted light is wave-like until you look at it, but turning our gaze to the test apparatus the interference disappears, the wave function collapses, then the experimental apparatus shows that the same beam of light is not wave-like but is matter, i.e. a light spot appears. But the tester's gaze is turned away, the instrument shows interference and wave again. That is, wave function is created and interference wave is created, too, and then, when the tester looks at the instrument the wave function collapses and shows matter the tester by seeing it, but the tester turns its eye’s rays away, the wave function and interference is created again.
So far, I have dealt with the double-slit experiments that are crucial in the quantum world, but only the solution of the scientific experiment and hypothesis the "Schrödinger's cat" and the twin paradox experiment, too. These all together justify the possibilities of understanding the whole quantum world. Progress has been made, many questions have been clarified, but there are still more unclear questions in the quantum world. When and why does the wave function collapse in the experiment?
THE TWIN PARADOX
The twin paradox experiment is the phenomenon when a photon is split in two pieces, one half is removed very far away, and then the other half photon left in the original place is changed, its spin e.g., at the same moment the first half photon being far away, follows the change at the speed of light. This is possible because all the matters and atoms of the Universe were created at the same time with the Big Bang, and still remain in eternal contact.
Dear Reader, if you’ve red it so far, you have taken a significant step forward to understand the wonderful, mysterious and future-defining quantum world.
If you are a truly curious person, I offer you beginning to study the quantum world, such interesting phenomena will be emerged that point far beyond the creation of the Universe, its working and (the disappearance of the Universe?!).
THE “SCHRÖDINGER’S CAT”
I wrote about the book Schrödinger's Cat in the introduction. Schrödinger took a giant step forward to understand the quantum world, coming up a thought experiment about the cat. This cat is the unknowable quantum, enclosed in a box containing a slowly and uncertainly decaying radiant active substance. At some point, this radiant material either escapes or it doesn't. The cat dies if the radiation is released, the cat lives if there is no radiation. Most of the significant physicists of the world think about and try to solve the question, how to figure out what can happen inside in a closed box without opening it. Countless simple and complex experiments are currently being carried out to give the answer the question, what is inside the closed box, what is quantum? But the only way to check this is to open the box. In other words, we can see with our eyes (again, how important eyes and vision are, e.g. double-slit experiment) that it is a simple experiment, but after Einstein had got information about the experiment and the conclusions that could be drawn from it, he declared, "God does not play dice with the Universe." This simple thought experiment defines the possibility of understanding the extremely complex quantum world.
We are talking about atoms, their parts, and their behaviour, their interactions, their transformations, which happen in quantum mode. But to do that, you have to open the box. The problem is that the quantum parts are such small that they are invisible to the eyes, so the only possibility is to get to know the quantum world in a inferential way during the experiments, on the basis of its behavior to understand the quantum world.
This raises the Schrödinger's cat’s problem, the box must be opened up to know. During the understanding the quantum question, among the others the twin paradox experiment is extremely important.
Among the already known oddities and proven facts of the Universe is that the vacuum that fills the Universe is not empty space. Virtual quantum matters appear in it, materializes and then disappear again. So the Universe is not at all what we see it as, when looking at the wavelike starlight, it can be seen like matter. It is not impossible that the continuous expansion of the Universe proves an incomplete creation of it, in fact! Which also proves that in the vacuum space virtual matters exist in significant quantities, by turning into matter in moments and then disappearing.
These virtual substances can form dark matter and dark energy of as yet completely unknown composition!
Atoms, protons and neutrons, are in constant contact with each other and mesons are accepted, transforming protons into neutrons and vice versa. This is all possible, but it is real, it is also real that the electron around the nucleus is surrounded by a virtual cloud of protons, while the position of the electron cannot be determined.
All the particles that fill the Universe in after the Big Bang were, are still and will be in contact with each other. Thus, all our atoms and cells are in eternal contact with all the atoms, stars, nebulas, spiral galaxies that make up the Universe. The atoms, particles that make up my body are connected even unknown to the atoms, that make up the body of you, dear Reader.
Referring to the above it is conceivable that the question of dark matter and dark energy, which makes up 95% of the Universe, and being researched still today, can be solved with this inherited atomic relationship that makes up the Universe!
All the roads lead to the future and the quantum world!
In 1911, Rutherford proposed a new atomic model, which became the basis for later experiments in atomic physics, for which Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize.
After that, physicists continued their experiments with the atoms, with less success, because only Einstein succeeded after several decades, in his experiments with atoms, he realized that the mystery of the atom could only be solved by the new quantum physics he had discovered!
The mystery is that the nucleus is positive and the electron cloud, orbiting it is negatively charged. Why doesn't the electron fall into the nucleus? The solution is that if the electron's lowest level the first orbit were, this would be the level at which the electron would fall into the nucleus, but it cannot do this because the first energy level is on the other side of the nucleus, so this prevents the electron falling into the nucleus in the whole Universe.
THE ATOMS AT THE BEGINNING
The atom helium is 2 proton +, 2 neutron, 2 electron-
Lithium 3 proton +, 4 neutron, 3 electron -
Carbon 6 proton +, 6 neutron, 6 electron -
The outer electron clouds of the atom are responsible for the formation of chemical bonds. All known matter in the world is made up of atoms, in the center of the atom is the nucleus, with one or many protons and neutrons, around it moves a cloud of electrons, there is no fixed location, there is only probable location because it is everywhere at once.
The chemical bonding of electrons gives the periodic table.
Chemical bonds between atoms are formed by electrons moving in the outermost electron orbit around the nucleus. Electron shells are charged from the inside out. Despite the tiny size of the electron, we can now observe it, we can see the virtual proton cloud around it – with the two-slit experiment, by the eye beam.
Photo of a single atom The image also shows the length of each atomic bond. (2010.09.29. Origo) The lighter and darker spots indicate the electron density (Photo: IBM)
In the nuclei of atoms, the proton and neutron are transformed from one to the other by mesons, forming them. The meson must have great weight to ignore nuclear interactions, and now we know that it ignores all forces, including weak interactions.
Mesons come from nowhere and leave to infinite space. The nucleus is held together by a proton, neutron and meson. Around the electron is a virtual cloud of protons. Anderson was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1936 for his understanding of the atomic world, and Dirac was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939 for his understanding of the atomic world. James Chadwick received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the neutron.
According to Dirac, any particle can be created from energy, but it’s always associated with the formation of a suitable antiparticle, axiom. When any particle of matter meets its own antiparticle, then, with an explosion, they turn into energy and disappear. CCa. There are 200 types of particles exist, there are the same number of antiparticles. The explanation of the behaviour of atoms is a triumph of quantum mechanics.
Single Titanium Magnetic Field (Figyelő, 2019.07.11)
The quantum world, with its particle and wave properties, both can be used well, as being matter and wave phenomena at the same time. There is nothing to tell us what happens in the quantum world when we do not observe it with our eyes (Two slits experiment - Eye Beam).
The spin of an electron is not a rotation, but a physical phenomenon. Primarily in mathematics and quantum physics formulas are the properties of spin significant.
Studying quantum physics, is not like it used to be, learning letters, then reading and then words... Quantum physics is completely different. We have to learn the first initial part, we probably won’t understand it. No problem, continue on, and learn the second part, but you still won't understand it, and then after learning the third part of it, you will understand the first two parts, you have already learned. After reading the fourth part, do we understand the all parts, already have learned. The limits is the starlit sky, because quantum physics, quantum mechanics is full of news, special things, and to understand them it is required studying the antecedents in the way already know, moving forward and backward step by step to understand them.
A photon from a distant star travels at the speed of light, so time is irrelevant to it, that’s why it can go backwards and forwards at the same time. Virtual particles and vacuum fluctuations are real as the rest of quantum theory. According to Jenő Wigner and John Wheeler, the Universe can only exist because of the many causes and effects because intelligent beings are constantly observing it (two slit experiments and the eye beam confirm this).
The laser is a parallel beam of light, existing in all colours of the rainbow, based on the principle of concentrated excitation of light. Laser cutting devices are used in various fields. From the clothing industry to microsurgery, radio waves, CD content of video discs are also read by lasers. Lasers are used to produce ingenious 3D images, called holograms. Cashiers read with laser scanner, there are spectacular laser shows, we can watch a laser concert on TV from the other side of the world, and so on to continue to infinity. We owe to Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr for all of these.
The physics of solid state
Solid-state physics is not part of physics, it is negligible and can be understood only by the initiated. Their operation depends on their semiconductor properties. They form a transition between the properties of conductors and insulators. All we need to know is that insulators are materials that do not conduct electricity because the electrons in their atoms are strongly bound to the nuclei in accordance with the mechanical rules of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, conductors have some electrons that are only loosely bound to the nucleus. In these, electrons flow freely from one nucleus to another. If you try to compress a metal, it will resist the pressure. The Pauli exclusion principle means that electrons cannot be squeezed closer together. This is why they are able to carry electric current in the metal, because the free electrons, constantly moving out of position, leave holes in the outer electron shell, and the electric current can flow in these holes. That's why we don't run out of metal conductors.
A special feature of semiconductors is that their electron pairs offer something new, because germanium crystals have 4 electrons on their outer shells. If germanium is contaminated with an arsenic atom, the crystal lattice structure is made up of germanium atoms, but the outer shell will have 7 free electrons. Another possibility is to contaminate the germanium crystal with a gallium atom, which would create 1-1 holes in the valence band, where the valence electrons can conduct current by jumping from hole to hole as if they were positive charges, such a crystal is called a (p) type crystal. In a slightly more complicated way, however, electrons can be made to jump from a semiconductor of type (n) to a hole in a semiconductor of type (p). While in the process, tiny flashes are produced. This is used in clocks, pocket calculators. If you fit 3 semiconductors together in sandwich form (you get pnp or npn transistors). Earlier, I built an amplifier according to my invention using the field effect transistor.
Silicon can be used till today to conduct electricity with the right switching effect. It’s used: 10 cm thick silicon crystals are chopped into extremely thin slices, which will become the so called “microchips”. There is a wide range of uses of it, in the space industry, on satellites and an increasing number in the form of solar panels, installed on the top of buildings, which use a converter to generate the necessary AC voltage for operating at the right power level in an environmentally friendly way from the sun.
Probability, uncertainty-invalidity relation
It was Bohr, Dirac and Heisenberg who introduced the concept and meaning of uncertainty in quantum physics and declared why a joint measurement of the position and momentum of an electron could not be made precisely.
For example: why is impossible to make joint measurements of position and momentum of an electron precisely? The indeterminacy relation, however, states that there is no way at all that an object like an electron can have both its position and impulse accurately measured simultaneously.
This statement do have far-reaching consequences. In principle, it is impossible to know all the details of the present, that is where quantum theory will be released from the bondage of classical ideas.
Physicists in the 1930s had already noticed the idea of causality, whereby any event is caused by any other specific event, and can have implications on the mystery of the future idea to its consequences.
For example: in the design of lasers and computers, in the study of genetic material, rules that are so reliable depend on the assumption that billions of particles in an experiment are constantly interfering with each other, and merge into a real particle only when the wave function collapses at the time of the observation (double-slit experiment).
Worse still, as soon as we stop observing the experiment, those immediately break down into a multitude of ghost particles, each pushing forward on its own probabilistic trajectory in the quantum world.
Nothing is real, but what we do see. As we stop looking at, it ceases to be real again (double-slit experiment). Spatial motion can happen in any direction and backwards, too. On the other hand temporal motion happens always in the same direction, moving forward whatever is to be seen or happens in the world of particles. It is difficult to imagine 4 dimensions of space-time, each perpendicular to all the others.
The fabric of space-time in the universe is constant, with gravitational pull. E.g.: if were shrunk the sun to 10 kilometers and this cylinder rotated at 1.5 thousandths of a second, it could distort space-time by pulling the fabric of space-time with it.
This idea is already pointing towards a journey into the future. The so-called millisecond or thousandth of a second pulsar discovered in 1982 is like this, but it is highly unlikely that this celestial body would be cylindrical. This high-speed rotation can flatten it into a pancake form. In fact, it's all the part of a time-travel, being a particle with many oddities of the world, where we get something even for nothing if we're fast enough (speed of light).
Something for nothing, in 1935 Hideki Yukawa, a 28-year-old physics professor at Osaka University, came up with an explanation for why neutrons and protons can stay together in the nucleus of an atom. It might be that the positive charge of the protons and neutrons would have to tear the nucleus apart, but there had to be something other cohesive force, this is the meson. The mass of which, applying the rules of quantum physics to the nucleus, must obviously be somewhere between the neutron and the proton. The meson, with its large size, while the proton and neutron can exchange between each other due to electrical interaction, can also overcome the strong nuclear interaction and keep parts of the nucleus together. According the physicists' worldview of today the demonstration can be thought as an interactions between particles of the nuclear forces, like the electrical interaction clearly was a milestone at all.
Today, we imagine all forces in terms of such interactions. It’s an axiom!
If it' s true, and it seems to be, we are close to being able to describe the effects of all the matters in the Universe in a single formula.
But where do the particles, that mediate these interactions, the mesons, come from? Well, simply from nothing, so in accordance with the indeterminacy principle, we get something for nothing. By detecting the echoes of the Big Bang, so as the photons of cosmic background radiation, may be we create the Big Bang and thus the whole Universe. If Wheeler is right, then perhaps Feynman is right, too, as he himself thought when he said that the "two-slit experiment" contains the only mystery.
Proving the existence of quantum mechanics were Bell's inequality first seven experimental checks of which five yielded results in favour of quantum mechanics. D' Aspagnat stresses that this is a stronger argument for quantum mechanics than it might appear at first. Here again we are struck by the wind of the problem that for so long had left Bohr in agony.
The only real thing, as he thought, the results of our experiments. However the way in which the measurement is carried out (adding by myself) and the investigator has an influence on that is measured, e.g.laser beam, eye beam, etc. Apparently, everything we see or touch or feel is made up of a multitude of particles that ever been aroused, at the time of the Big Bang. The atoms in my body are made up of such elementary particles that were created simultaneously at the time of the Big Bang. So all the atoms in the known Universe are connected to each other still nowadays, and "know each other". This fact explains a lot also in the mysterious quantum physics as well, e.g. because the particles and atoms that make up my body interact with the particles that make your body up, and this will never change.
However, it is also true that the meeting of two living cells can trigger a process that creates billions of new atoms and cells, and a human being come into existence. But this can’t override any of those described so far above.
According the argue of the theoretical physicists d'Aspagnat and Niels Bohr in the strictest sense of the word we must accept that everything is connected to everything else, therefore likely only a holistic approach to the Universe can explain to phenomena such as human consciousness.
THE NEW QUANTUM COMPUTER
According to one basic experiment there was used a ring made of superconducting material. This ring behaves on its own like being a quantum particle. During the experiment, it responds in its entirety instantaneously to the influences from the outside world. But faster than any computer currently known, as thinking in quantum mode, does at nanosecond speeds. This Sussex experiment above shows if we can control a quantum particle such this way, the future computer will be faster with magnitude as well as the best ones and fastest known today.
The Universe exists as alternate reality, in the state of overlapping wave functions, which collapse into a single world only by the effect of observation (two-slit experiment). But who is observing the Universe? The Universe is observed by consciously thinking creatures and people, and therefore we see it as material. The process of observing cuts the bonds that link alternate realities to each other, multiple parallel universes.
Let's return to the fundamental experiment in quantum physics: the double-slit experiment. When only a single particle passes through the experimental device, but the interference pattern still appears on the screen of the experiment, even within the framework of the conventional Copenhagen interpretation can it be explained usually as the interference of two alternative reality.
In one of the two alternative realities, the particle passes through the hole “A” and in the other through the hole “B”. When we look at the holes, we see the particle passing only through one of the holes, therefore we do not experience interference. But how does the particle choose which hole to go through?
According to the Copenhagen interpretation, in accordance with quantum mechanical probabilities decides it which hole to choose - in other words, "God yet! plays dice (Einstein) with the Universe".
There is no official Copenhagen interpretation. But every version “takes the bull’s horn” and claims an observation results in the observed property.
The tricky word here is the "observation".
The collaboration between Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg in Copenhagen around 1927 resulted in the experiments, theories and mathematical formulas that laid the foundations for quantum mechanics. Heisenberg said, " in principle, we are capable of knowing the past in all its details". This is perfectly consistent with our everyday experience of the nature of time progressing from the known past to the unknown future, but the most fundamental feature of quantum world is. Everything can be related to the perceptible direction of time in observing the large-scale phenomena of the universe; the principle is rather bizarre, and its consequences have been discussed since then.
Professionally, the two men have mapped and revealed the quantum universe inside the atom. In 1927, Heisenberg related his own claim to a major scientific result when he published his ‘'Uncertainty Principle'’, which stated that the exact position of an electron in the nucleus at a particular time can't get acquainted with certainty, but only statistically calculated probability.
In the same year, Bohr has developed the complementarity principle, introduced by him, essentially describing the epistemological form of Heisenberg's indeterminacy relation. "The particle and the wave, as concepts, complement each other while contradicting each other: the complementary pictures of cases.", through which he incorporated Heisenberg's physics into his own, and proposed that the apparent chaos of the quantum world and the order of the universe based on classical physics should not both contradict each other, but complement each other in such a ways that had yet to be understood and explained.
The two men were the fathers of quantum mechanics and together they “have been carried out a revolution” in the world of physics in the 1920s. In 1932, Heisenberg joined Bohr as a Nobel-prize awarded.
The Uncertainty Principle:
Developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927, this indicates couples of conjugate variables existing that cannot be measured to arbitrary levels of precision. In other words, quantum physics imposes an absolute threshold on exactly how certain pairs of measurements can be made, most often for simultaneous measurements of position and momentum.
Statistical interpretation: Developed by Max Born in 1926. It interprets the Schrödinger’s wave function equation as the probability of the outcome in a given state. To do this, the mathematical formalism of quantum theory is called Born's rule.
The complementarity principle: Developed by Niels Bohr in 1928, it involves the idea of wave-particle duality and that the collapse of the wave function is related to the measurement. Identification of the state vector by using "system knowledge": the Schrödinger equation contains a series of state vectors, and these vectors vary over time and the knowledge of the system at a given time is represented by observations.
Heisenberg's positivism: this emphasizes on discussing alone the observable results of experiments, not the "meaning" or "reality".
This above mentioned seem to be a fairly comprehensive list of the key elements of the Copenhagen interpretation, but the interpretation does have some fairly serious problems, and has attracted a number of criticisms..., which worth dealing with each of them separately.
Now, when we are dealing with the most mysterious mystery, it is time to turn our gaze off from everyday experience, as far as possible, and try to explain the real world in terms of quantum mechanics. There are no experiences that we can transfer from the world of everyday experience into the realm of quantum. The behaviour of the quantum world cannot be compared to anything we know. No one knows why the quantum world behaves the way it does, all we know is that it behaves the way it does.
We can only grasp at two stalks of straw. The first one is that both the "particles" (electrons) and the "waves" (photons) behave in the same way. Therefore the rules of the game are consistent. There is only one mystery according to Feynman, if we get to agree on the two-slit experiment! Then it's already more than the half of a victory!
In any other situation that arising in quantum mechanics, remember the two-slit experiment! Perhaps never succeed in deciding this question, because it is impossible to design an experimental device that can distinguish between the two interpretations, apart from time travel. It is quite evident, that Max Jammer, one of the most eminent quantum philosophers, was not excessive when he declared that his theory of the “Multiverse of Universes” is with no doubt, the one of the boldest and most ambitious theories ever conceived in the history of natural sciences. It literally explains everything, including the life and death of cats (Shrödinger).
The story of quantum theory, as I have presented it so far, seems to be perfectly completed, and almost finished to the last touch, apart from the apparently semi-philosophical debate on whether to prefer the Copenhagen interpretation or the Multiverse version. Quantum theory is much more than having known about it nowadays. The triumph of quantum theory is that the electromagnetic interactions being explained with the quantum theory. Many scientists have shown that the Schrödinger equation has no solution, or at least requires drastic changes. Symmetry is a fundamental concept in physics, the most important equations in physics are symmetric in time for example, thus they work well equally forward and backward in time.
Supergravity – Supersymmetry theory
Theory infinities appear in every gauge theory and must be tailored to fit reality by renormalization. Thus, an infinite number of gauge theories may be possible. Supersymmetry works well, but this is still not the final answer, something is still missing and physicists don't know the solution. Supergravity begins with a hypothetical particle called a graviton, the force carrier of gravity. In addition, 8 other particles called gravitinos are included in the theory.
But it is usually, and that's important, that first physicists determine particle and do they create it only later. So far this worked.
Allegedly now ends the pandemic? To cure this virus, a Hungarian inventor and scientific researcher, Prof. Katalin Karikó, has developed a vaccine with the right curative effect. She will save hundreds of thousands of lives with this!
It is true that her work and research to develop the mRNA-based vaccine took nearly 30 years. But it was worth to struggle! I am personally affected because I was vaccinated against the virus with the vaccine developed by her. For her persistent work, I have all my respects to her!
This dissertation is made for the future. For the future built on the quantum world. But for this is absolutely necessary that new ideas and theories and know-hows to born.
It would be good to have a new Einstein, Stephen Hawking, Niels Bohr, Heisenberg and Paul Dirac, or scientists as knowledgeable as them, to direct the world of physics.
I owe a debt of gratitude to the great physicists who are no longer alive and from whom I have learned so much about their lives and work.
It is therefore important that anyone who has an idea should not save it, but publish it, even if they are uncertain, because new ideas move the world forward and from them a new group of physicists could develop, growing up to those scientists mentioned above.
The Universe is infinite and will not cease to exist, as I have written in my dissertation: “https://astronomyknowhow.hu/en/the-universe-wont-cease-to-exist--what-happened-before-the-big-bang" and “https://astronomyknowhow.hu/en/universe---explanation-of-the-infinite ”.
This world should be developed further, in the principle of quantum way, with new ideas.
According to one of the theories, the Universe and everything observable in it is nothing more or less than a single vacuum fluctuation that allows a group of particles being created suddenly from nothing, existing for a while, and then being absorbed into the vacuum. For the many years passed it was considered completely utter madness, than it was accepted.
My dissertation was started with the eye beam, when describing I realized how much was this related to atomic physics, quantum physics, and to the double-slit experiment within.
The double-slits experiment is a miracle itself, which is perfectly probative in the quantum world.