Introduction: In order to express my thoughts in a comprehensible way, I decided to use a few of my own images, along with the essential images and descriptions of the “great ones”, always citing the authors of the said pictures and descriptions, whom I would hereby like to offer my most sincere gratitude!
For a long time the expert scientists opinion was, that gravity had no material of its own and therefore there was no idea how it worked. According to the latest calculations have found gravity to have matter and that matter is called graviton. Any material, indeed even two atoms are able to exert gravitational force. The dark material happens to exert gravity though it has no material. According to Einstein illustrated with the picture below the bodies sink in a fabric of space-time, moving up on the slope, they are forced to exert gravity. The effect of gravity is infinite, but extremely small and many have had doubts the very existence of gravity and the gravitational matter, called graviton to date.
Illustration of black holes orbiting each other - Photo: Mark Garlick / Science Photo Library https://444.hu/2017/06/01/ujra-osszeolvado-fekete-lyukak-nyomaira-talaltunk-tenyleg-itt-a-csillagaszat-uj-korszaka
I wish to join a new explanation concerning gravity and graviton with this study and some new ideas.
I do not agree with the explanation of the physics of material sinking into a plane fabric of space-time, as formulated by Einstein. I see gravity as something functioning in space, and it cannot be explained by any rubber fabric and its behaviour. (See Image 1)
In my opinion, gravity spreads in space in spheroidal waves, similarly to the light. The gravitational waves are built on each other, like an onion’s layers, spherically.
A much better explanation is that the Earth does not fall into the Sun – despite both being gravitationally pulled towards each other – because the Earth orbits the Sun fast enough for centrifugal force to counteract the mutual gravitation. According to my theory the way of gravity spreading: is possible only if “the small balls”, i.e. gravitons, can be found everywhere in the Universe, push each other simultaneously at the speed of some wave or that of light across the entire Universe, and that is how they move all at once, at the speed of light.
By radiating their gravitational force materials and black holes lose energy, ergo they lose their mass. The huge amount of dark matter exerts a significant gravitational force, which proves that there must have been material, in it. Let’s say, it can be the possible explanation of the expansion of the Universe, the gravitational energy radiated by materials, increase of its volume.
Gravity and its matter – graviton – fills the known Universe and its range is infinite. Graviton is a ball-like atomic particle moving like a wave. The existence of gravitons is confirmed by detecting gravitational waves with an instrument, while at the same time watching the location of the occurrence, the collision of black holes or neutron stars, with telescopes as well. (See Images 2-3.)
https://www.urvilag.hu/tavoli_vilagok_kutatoi/20180606_utkozo_neutroncsillagok_formalta_kis_tomegu_fekete_lyuk The collision of two neutron stars is presumed to be followed by the creation of a black hole. An imaginary artistic view of a black hole with a stream of high energy particles and a disk of rubble. (Image: NASA / CXC / M. Weis)
Two Black Holes Merge into One https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=11&v=I_88S8DWbcU&feature=emb_logo
Gravity is stronger in small and large galaxies because the multiple gravity of the stars inside them is added to the homogeneous gravity that is present all over the Universe and to the gravitons making up that. Since light shows the characteristics of both waves and matter, and gravitational wave spreads the same way as light does, gravity can be assumed to be that gravity is, constituted by gravitons made up of matter. Such an experiment is the confirmation of the twin-paradox in which one half of a photon conveys a spin change at the speed of light to the other half at a distance. In my concept graviton is the intermediary matter. What follows from this that information is transmitted with the twin paradox experiment. A gravitational wave detector may be created, conceivably, based on the experience of the twin paradox experiment. Light and gravity – graviton show the same attributes in “theoretical physics”.
For the sake of easier understanding my idea so far about gravity and the gravitons that forming it, their behavior, and to prove the existence of graviton as a matter, was expressed in a single flat plane.
As I have written about on my web page “astronomyknowhow.hu ”, in my “Dark material - dark energy ” study, the Universe is flat! However: this flat plane of the Universe does have a spatial extension as well. Thus, the logical arguments presented so far about gravity and graviton, are valid in space, too! In fact, the functioning and physics of their behaviour in space takes up a new approach and generate new ideas. Gravity being interpreted in space sheds new light on galactic physics interpreting so far. The way the expansion and the movement of all the stars in the galaxy, the spiral galaxies etc., work in a different way, as well as the measurement of the interstellar distances measured in the Universe. Galactic space is completely filled with gravity, formed and conveyed by gravitons. My idea is that lumps of gravitons are formed by galaxies and stars in this homogeneous graviton space. And since stars and galaxies are not inanimate matter, explosions and solar flares take place all the time, or jets – supernovae are formed, that’s why the galactic space is constantly moving, which could be detected as a gravitational wave.
Scientists are currently detecting the explosive merging of colossal black holes, together with the creation of small black holes forming by exploding neutron stars, with the LIGO and VIRGO instruments (see Images 4 and 5) from the Earth.
Aerial photo of the gravitational-wave detector Virgo near Pisa, SOURCE: ESA https://www.origo.hu/tudomany/20190329-folytatja-gravitacios-hullamok-utani-kutatasat-a-tovabbfejlesztett-ligo-es-a-virgo.html The gravitational-wave detector “VIRGO”, participating in the research, in Italy, called European Gravitational Observatory (EGO)
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/news/ligo20191015 LIGO is made up of two twin-detectors, one located in Washington, the other in Louisiana. Due to technological development these instruments will be enable to detect collisions of black holes at distances twice as large as has been possible so far.
Fusions of black holes or collisions of stars is in gravitational physics, the “tip of the iceberg”. This is an immensely huge, extremely complex and fine system. Gravitational waves, and gravitons filling the Universe, move at the speed of light. By studying these motions and developing better instruments for such observations lead to the birth of a new gravitational physics about which we know that it exists and is based on gravitons. As I have noted, the key attributes of gravity –e.g. speed, its matter and wave characteristics – are identical with those of light.
It is also true that in my study entitled „The light’s mysterious road through the Universe ” I refute the established speed of light. Gravitational space, owing to the written above, is kept waving and vibrating permanently by the objects to be found in it.
The cluster CL0024+1654 by the Hubble space telescope in November 2004. (Image: NASA / ESA / H. Lee & H. Ford, Johns Hopkins Univ.) https://www.urvilag.hu/a_het_kepe/20091023_egy_gigantikus_lencse
Gravitational lenses (Image 6) are the miracle of the Universe. They come about when ring-shaped groups are formed by spiral galaxies and stars with strong gravitational fields. Their gravitational fields merge and by bending light they create an optical magnifier property inside the ring. This is the proof of the fact that the Universe is not a flat rubber sheet but a wonderful infinite structure functioning in space as governed by its own rules!
We have been making little purposeful use of this optical miracle as yet, despite the fact that it could enable us to observe billions of light years more distant events with our telescopes if we used them. By the way gravitational lenses are also suitable for taking measurements of distances to and between stars.
If a quasar is in the middle of a gravitational lens, it appears magnified. But if in the field of vision there is a galaxy, closer to us, even the quasar’s image appears in the middle, and since the galaxy bends the quasar’s light, up to multiple images of the quasar simultaneously we can see in our telescope. The quasar’s light coming to us in a straight line appears to be a shorter distance than the one, skirting the galaxy, and the actual distance between the quasar and Earth can be computed more accurately from it. The famous Einstein cross is good example for the above mentioned. (7-8. images)
Image 8: Einstein cross
Ferenc Hollósi - 24/02/2020 Budapest, Hungary